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By choosing good example texts and using the techniques described in my posts “Refining Your Writing with Double Translations” and “Building Your Writing Skills,” you can improve your writing independently.  Choose sample documents or texts that you enjoy or admire.

Below are just a few examples of short texts that native and advanced non-native English speakers might study, some with links to the original material online.

REPORTING: Journalistic reports, feature stories

Well-written news reports are widely available: again, I suggest you work with an article you enjoyed reading or admired for some reason.  Here’s a sample article that I admired for its content — a compelling story of Afghan girls persevering in their effort to attend school despite violent antagonism from those who would like to prevent them from getting an education:

“Afghan Girls, Scarred by Acid, Defy Terror, Embracing School”  by Dexter Filkins

Obituaries — brief biographies of people who have recently died — can be interesting.  Here’s one I enjoyed about the unusual life of a performer who had a special relationship with elephants (and one elephant, in particular):

“Ben Williams, Half of an Elephant Act, Dies at 56” by Douglas Martin

Here’s a humorous report on ethnic joke-telling traditions in a remote region of Russia:

“In Dagestan, Laugh Track Echoes Across Mountains” by Ellen Barry

Here’s a well-worded article on the natural world from National Geographic magazine, profiling two neighboring national parks — Glacier (in the U.S.), and Waterton Lakes (in Canada):

“Crown of the Continent” by Douglas H. Chadwick

ESSAYS: Opinion pieces, editorials, reviews

The op-ed (opinion-editorial) pages of a publication can be worth studying.  Many newspapers reserve the last two pages of the front section for editorials (pieces written by the editorial staff of the publication), letters to the editor (readers’ responses to previously published pieces — selected by the editors), columns (opinion pieces by syndicated columnists or regular contributors to the publication), and opinion pieces (essays by various contributors).  And of course, reviews of books, movies, museum exhibitions, and nearly any cultural artifact or event are ubiquitous!

Here’s a short essay that effectively weaves narrative elements into a persuasive commentary on common prejudices about aging and older people:

“Old Age, From Youth’s Narrow Prism” by Marc E. Agronin, M.D.

SHORT FICTION: Short stories

Short stories offer many of the insights and pleasures of novels, with a much-reduced time investment.  Below is a very short list of some stories by American writers that I enjoyed reading or re-reading recently.

Again, I recommend focusing on stories you enjoy or admire.  However, a private student of mine recently committed to studying a story she didn’t like in order to explore certain cultural aspects and understand why it’s so well regarded.  In the end … she still didn’t like it, but she appreciated its cultural content.

Here’s a story with a high-octane narrator (link below to full text at nytimes.com) — it’s from a collection of stories entitled Wild Child by T. Coraghessan Boyle:

“La Conchita” by T. C. Boyle

T. C. Boyle is versatile; the settings and characters in his stories are diverse.  Here’s one more of his pieces available online:

“Modern Love” by T. C. Boyle

I’ll just list a few more authors and stories for your interest.  Visit your local library and read the first few paragraphs of some of these (and other) stories; maybe you’ll find one you particularly like!

Stories by Richard Yates: “A Really Good Jazz Piano”; “The B.A.R. Man”; “Doctor Jack-o’-Lantern” (ESL note: Be prepared for a particular New York City accent represented in written dialog in “Doctor Jack-o’-Lantern”)

Stories by Alice Munro: “Fiction”; “Face”; “The Bear Came Over the Mountain”; and many others

Stories by Tobias Wolff: “In the Garden of the North American Martyrs”; “The Night in Question”; “The Other Miller”; “Sanity”; “The Missing Person”

Stories by Sam Shepard: “The Remedy Man”; “Living the Sign”; “Dust”; “A Man’s Man”; “Cruising Paradise”; “A Small Circle of Friends”; “Wild to the Wild”

Stories by Ernest Hemingway: “The Snows of Kilimanjaro”; “The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber”; and many others

(photo by Bonnie Yoon Bishop)
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You’re not going to magically become a better writer just by reading.  After all, would you expect to become a better speaker just by listening?  If you want to build your writing skills, you have to do one thing: write!  Doing assignments for a class is important, and revising after receiving feedback is especially important.  But if you really want to improve your skills, challenge yourself to write regularly … not for class, but for yourself.  Give yourself writing tasks:

Keep a writing journal: Write for 15-30 minutes every day, no matter what.  Write about anything that comes to mind; if nothing comes to mind, write about nothing coming to mind!  It’s good language practice, and writing about “nothing” is still writing; after a few minutes, the very act of writing can stimulate your idea flow.  Journal writing can improve your abilities to organize your thoughts and express yourself precisely, abilities that apply to both writing and speech.

Self-Dictation: Choose an article or story you enjoyed, and record your voice reading it aloud, and then play back the recording as a self-dictation.  Write each sentence, pausing or replaying the recording in the same way a teacher delivers a dictation in class.  Finally, check your spelling and punctuation against the original text.  Regular dictations/self-dictations will improve your writing skills.

Copy good sample paragraphs and entire essays or other documents: Get deeply acquainted with a writer’s word choices and sentence structures.  The text you choose serves as your “tutor” — it demonstrates good writing, and you absorb the lesson well because you’re doing it … not just thinking about it.

As a learning tool, copying is not taboo!  If you consider a particular sentence, paragraph, or essay well written, analyze what makes it well written.  If you want to learn to write like that, copy it!  Copying is a natural way to learn any craft.  Most human skills are acquired largely through imitation: artists copy masters to learn their techniques; musicians practice the works of other musicians and composers; babies learn to speak by imitating adults; second-language learners imitate first-language models.  Unfortunately, the taboo against copying other people’s ideas inhibits many student writers from using copying as a tool for building writing skills.  But this kind of copying is entirely different from plagiarism; private writing practice exercises are not the same as false public presentations of others’ ideas as your own.  Copying is a natural way to boost your writing competence.

Follow Good Examples

Start noticing how writers write.  When you like a piece of writing, examine it closely.  What part did you like the most?  Why?  Did you like certain words/phrases, or the simplicity or complexity of a particular sentence?  What kinds of sentence structures impressed you?

In addition to pieces by professional writers, documents written by your boss, your teachers, your faculty advisor — anyone whose writing you’d like to emulate — are worth considering.  And be sure to examine published articles, brochures, websites, and reports that relate to your field or specialty.  Such documents may serve as excellent models for your own professional writing.  Imitate good models — not just by reading them, but by moving your fingers: respond to them in your writing journal, record and use them for self-dictations, or copy them!

Learn with Lloyd!

Small talk does not have to be interesting to be effective.  But you can make it more interesting (or at least less intimidating or unpleasant) if you develop a few good conversational habits.

If you’re not a native English speaker, and you’re trying to build relationships with Americans, strengthening your small talk skills can be extremely helpful in your professional and personal life.  Americans prefer to socialize and do business with people they feel comfortable with; this sense of comfort is often established through light conversation that feels natural and effortless to them — it may take some unnatural effort and strain on your part, but this pain will diminish as you practice the tips presented below!

-1- Focus your attention and imagination on the person you want to talk to.  Imagine what interests or concerns them.  Use your powers of empathy: the ability to put yourself in another person’s place and see the world from their perspective.  Ask yourself what you and your conversation partner may have in common, and start exploring for shared interests.  If this doesn’t work, try commenting positively on something you noticed about your partner — something he or she just did, just said, is wearing, etc.:

“I see you’re wearing a Yankees cap.  Are you a baseball fan?”

“I heard you say you’re from Italy.  What part of Italy are you from?”

-2- Ask questions, especially information questions (those that begin with who, what, where, when, why, and how).  Information questions elicit longer, more interesting responses than simple yes/no questions.  In fact, shy people may answer a yes/no question with a simple “Yes” or “No” and stop there.  Some of the many advantages of questions are:

  • Questions focus on the other person’s attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs, so they are a selfless way to show your interest in others.
  • Once you’ve asked a question, you’ve transferred the job of keeping the conversation going to the other person.  You can relax, listen, and learn something.  What you hear and learn will give you something new to respond to, or to follow up with a more specific question.
  • Questions allow you to steer a conversation where you want it to go.  A good conversation is often guided by good questions, so if you want to avoid “boring” conversations, take the lead by asking thoughtful questions.

-3- IMPORTANT — Ask follow-up questions/comments that seem appropriate in the moment:

“Oh really?  Why?”

“When was that?”

“Where was that?”

“That’s interesting; and then what happened?”

“Wow!  How did you handle that?”

Notice these follow-up questions are open-ended: they seek more than a simple “yes” or “no.”  Since they demonstrate that you are really listening and interested in learning more about the speaker, they encourage meaningful responses and help keep the conversation flowing.

-4- Be sure to respond to any question or comment your partner offers.  He/she has just made the effort to move the conversation forward, so respond generously, with some animation.  If you find yourself stuck, use a basic response such as “That’s interesting” or “So do I” (casual but common equivalent: “Me too”) or “Neither do I” (casual: “Me neither”), and then add a related question or comment to continue the small talk chain:

A: Question or comment

B: Response + question or comment

A: Response + question or comment

B: Response + question or comment

etc.

Continuing the small talk chain takes a little effort, but it’s worth it!  You’ll make a better first impression and strengthen existing relationships if you can keep these light but important conversations going … and make them seem effortless, natural, and comfortable.

-5- Beware of asking too many questions: in small talk situations, people do not want to be interrogated.  If you’ve asked three or four questions, and your partner isn’t moving the conversation forward, consider other ways to get your partner involved:

  • Shift the focus to yourself for a while.  Comment on something that you’ve been actively thinking about, and while you’re talking, try to figure out a question related to your own interests that might engage your partner.
  • Focus on what’s happening around you.  For example, comment on something you noticed or learned about another person in the room.  But avoid gossiping (sharing personal, private, or negative information about people who are not participating in your conversation).
  • Comment on an item in the room, such as a picture on the wall, a book on a shelf, an object on a table, or the scene outside the window.  If the place is bare, picture your location geographically: where are you within the neighborhood, city, region, state, or country?  Think of one interesting aspect of the place where you both are — this is something you and your conversation partner have in common — and share it.
  • If you can’t think of anything interesting, comment on how you arrived there, whether you’ve been in the area before, and ask your partner questions on such “small” topics.

-6- Prepare for situations where you may need to small talk.  Before you arrive in a place where you’ll have to make conversation, imagine what topics might be comfortable for you to mention, and consider what kind of small talk questions people might ask you.  If you’re about to meet someone important for the first time and you want to make a good first impression, rehearse possible responses to typical or expected small talk questions in advance.

For example, if you’re scheduled for a job interview, consider the possibility that the interviewer may ask a question about how you traveled to the interview location.  Now, consider the possibility that your truthful answer at that moment could be negative — but you don’t want to get trapped into making useless negative comments while trying to make a positive first impression, especially in a job interview.  So consider telling a “white lie” (an innocent untruth), and then add a positive follow-up comment.

Let’s say you experienced some difficulties getting to an interview appointment, and right at the beginning of your conversation, the interviewer asks, “How was your trip over here?”  Which of the following responses would be more appropriate?

a) “It was fine.  Your location is quite convenient.”

b) “Oh, the subway was delayed, and the first train that came was full, so I couldn’t get on, and then….”

Since this is a job interview, not a casual chat with a colleague or friend, your best interests are served by response a).  If telling such a white lie is unnatural for you, coach yourself — rehearse such comments before you need them.  Notice the additional positive comment “Your location is quite convenient,” which helps to establish an upbeat tone and keep the small talk flowing (more on this in point 5 below).

Let’s say you had difficulty locating the building where the interview was scheduled to take place, and the interviewer happens to ask, “Did you have any trouble finding our building?”  Which of these responses would be more appropriate?

a) “No, it was pretty easy.  I really like the style of this building.”

b) “Actually, I asked two people for directions and both of them pointed me in the wrong direction, so I was lost until….”

Learn with Lloyd! Small talk plays an important role in American business culture.  However, too much of a good thing can be bad!  I got a call recently from an acquaintance who wanted to let me know that he was looking for work and wanted to know if I had any suggestions.  However, instead of getting to the point, he engaged in 10 minutes of small talk.  This would have been OK if he were a close friend, but we aren’t close, so I didn’t understand why he was asking about things like my family’s health!   

Here’s what he said: “Hi!  Long time no talk!  Wow, it’s been so long since I’ve seen you!  How have you been?  Did you go anywhere for the holidays?  So how is everything?  Are you still teaching at the university?  How’s your wife doing?  Is she still….?  Oh wow, that’s…!  And your parents — how are they doing?…  As for me, I’ve been….    And then X happened, and….   So I’m looking for a job and….  Can you give me some ideas on…?”

 I was getting impatient with the conversation, and when I finally understood that he was simply networking for useful ideas, I was eager to offer a few quick thoughts and bring the call to an end! 

Different cultures have different assumptions about making a request: the person who called me is from a culture in which 10 minutes of small talk is probably considered good manners.  If you’re from outside the USA, be aware that in requesting information, help, or favors, you’ll probably receive a warmer response from Americans if you make your request early, quickly, and directly

The conversation described above could have been more effective — and my response would have been more thoughtful and substantive — if the caller had been aware of American cultural expectations.  To start, he should have kept small talk to a minimum.  When speaking to acquaintances, associates, and colleagues — in person or on the phone — consider whether two or more of the following are true:

  1. You have a practical purpose or concrete goal for the conversation
  2. Your conversation partner is not a close friend
  3. You haven’t spoken to this person in a long time

 

If two or more of these are true, then limit your small talk to one minute or less (unless your partner initiates more small talk by asking questions).  In the case of my acquaintance, he could have made 2-3 brief small talk comments/questions — “Happy New Year!  How are you doing?  How’s your wife?” — and then moved on to the purpose of his call:

Purpose statement, part 1 — CONTEXT: “Well, the reason I’m calling you today is that I’m looking for a job and….”

Purpose statement, part 2 — REQUEST: “…I was wondering if I could ask you for any suggestions you might have about….”

When making requests or asking for favors from people whose relationship to you is cool or distant, or who may be busy or unreceptive to requests for help, get to the point early, clearly, and concisely, but also politely.  The request above features a few indirect words to soften its directness:

  • I was wondering: indirect introductory phrase
  • if I could ask you: indirect conditional, with the burden of action on the speaker “asking,” not the listener “giving”
  • any: meaning “any possible” — indicates the speaker does not assume the listener has suggestions to offer
  • might: conditional, with an implied “if” — “if you happen to have ideas, or if you can think of anything spontaneously, and if you would be willing to share your thoughts with me”

 

As this imaginary conversation continues, let’s assume YOU are the requester.  If you think the person you’ve contacted may be busy or preoccupied, or if you need the person’s full attention for more than 3 minutes, you should confirm whether this particular time is convenient for such a conversation.

Ask: “Is this a good time to talk?” 

Don’t say: “You sound/seem/look busy.  Are you busy?”  This is confusing because most people are likely to feel somewhat “busy” — and they’re not sure what “Are you busy?” really means.

* * *

If the other person indicates the time is NOT ideal or convenient, ask when a good time to talk would be.  Try to get the other person to propose a time or range of times that would suit his/her schedule.

Ask: “Would there be a better time when I could call you back?”

or: “Is there a particular time that might be more convenient for you?”

Don’t ask: “Can I call you back another time?” 

or: “Can we talk another time?”  This is slightly unpleasant because your partner can imagine the conversation resuming at some future inconvenient time.  It fails to express a desire to find a specific alternate time that would suit that person, and it invites a vague reply of “Yes” or “Sure,” which is not helpful to either of you.

* * *

If the person seems particularly busy, indicate the conversation will be short.

Say: “I just wanted to ask you a couple of specific questions.” 

or: “I just wanted to talk to you for 3 or 4 minutes.”

Don’t say: “I have so many questions I want to ask you!”   Your listener is likely to think, “Oh no!”

* * *

Email can be an excellent way to continue such a conversation.  Unlike a phone call or face-to-face conversation, email gives the recipient time to consider your message and compose a response.  In the case of my acquaintance, an email would have been more effective for both of us than a phone call.  However, the context for every conversation is unique, so use your judgment in choosing (or combining) phone, face-to-face, or email communication. 

For example, during a phone conversation you might realize that email would be efficient for sharing some particular information.  If you propose to send your partner an unsolicited (uninvited) email, refer to it in light, reader-friendly terms such as “short” or “a couple of questions.”

Ask: “Could I email you a short description of what I have in mind?”

or: “Could I email you a couple of  questions I wanted to ask you?”

Don’t say: “Let me email you more information.”  This is somewhat unwelcome because it sounds like an unwanted burden — after all, this person did not ask to be contacted and is unlikely to be eager to receive a load of unsolicited “information.”

* * *

If your conversation ends with an understanding that your partner will contact you if he/she has something of interest for you, be sure to confirm your latest phone number and email address.  

Ask: “Could I give you my email address?  It’s…, and my telephone number is…..”

or: “Let me make sure you have my latest email address.  It’s…, and my phone number is….”

Don’t ask: “Do you have my email address?”  This is slightly uncomfortable because people may not be sure they have it, or they may wonder whether you’re still using the address they may have in their contact list, and they may not be able to check their records right now.  Also, this question invites a vague reply of “I’m sure I do” or “I think so” with no real confirmation, which could result in no email following this conversation!

Even better, offer to send them a follow-up email so they have your address readily available, even if the current conversation doesn’t require a follow-up.  Then they can relax, knowing your contact information will be forthcoming, and your email message may help stimulate a thoughtful, substantive reply, which is the result you’re looking for!

Say: “I can send you a quick email so you have my latest address and telephone number.”

Don’t say: “I’ll send you a follow-up email so you can add me to your contacts.”  This is presumptuous; the term “follow-up” is fine in the workplace, but in a case requiring no follow-up, or when you and the other person are not colleagues, “follow-up” sounds too official.  Also, “so you can…” presumes that people will react in specific, prescribed ways.  Let them decide what to do with your incoming email — don’t dictate what they should do, and don’t assume they’ll do what exactly what you want or need them to do.

* * * * *

Making “Yes” Easy

April 30, 2010

Learn with Lloyd!A simple technique in the art of persuasion is presenting your points or requests in small steps — manageable bits of information that your conversation/negotiation partner can readily agree with or easily say “yes” to.  Here’s an example of comments/questions designed to elicit a positive response, step by step:

Some of us in the office have recently gotten involved in helping the neighborhood around our building.  We’ve had a lot of fun doing things like A…, B…, and C…, and the response from the community has been great.  We were wondering if you might like to join us sometime.  [Hoped for response: Sure!]

Our next project is D…, and we’re going to start it this Saturday.  Would you be interested in working with us on Saturday?  [Hoped for response: Yes, that sounds interesting.]

We’re planning to meet in front of our building at 10 a.m.  Would you be available then?  [Hoped for response: Yes, I think so.]

Great!  See you then!  [Hoped for response: OK!]

* * *

We’ll examine the structure of these sentences in a moment, but first, look at this less effective approach, which  packs too much information into a single request and may be less appealing to the listener.   A quick, positive response is less likely here:

Several of us in the office are planning to do some volunteer work near our building this weekend.  Are you free this Saturday morning around 10?  [Possible response: Uh, I think I have something going on this Saturday; maybe another time.]

 * * *

Effective Persuasion — COMMENT + REQUEST Structure:

You can enhance your powers of persuasion by making it easy for the other person to say “yes.”  Below is an analysis of useful elements in the effective example at the beginning.  Notice the comment + request structure in each of the first three exchanges: instead of aiming a single question at a time, the speaker creates context with a comment and then follows it immediately with a short request (direct or implied).  Also notice how the comments get progressively narrower in scope.  Comment 1 begins with broad perspective and background information:

Comment 1: Some of us in the office have recently gotten involved in helping the neighborhood around our building.  We’ve had a lot of fun doing things like A…, B…, and C…, and the response from the community has been great.  [Introductory sentence provides background, context.  Second sentence emphasizes two positive points — “fun” and “great response” — while giving specific examples “A…, B…, and C…”]

Request 1: We were wondering if you might like to join us sometime.  [Phrased as a statement; “we were wondering if” and “might like to” are usefully indirect, conditional elements; “sometime” is usefully ambiguous, avoiding early mention of Saturdays/weekends.]

Comment 2: Our next project is D…, and we’re going to start it this Saturday.  [Offers specific description “D…”; full-day reference to “this Saturday” avoids early mention of morning start time.]

Request 2: Would you be interested in working with us on Saturday?  [Phrased as a question; “would” is a useful conditional; “interested in” focuses on the other person’s interest/feeling instead of requester’s need or demand.]

Comment 3: We’re planning to meet in front of our building at 10 a.m.  [Notice each comment is getting successively narrower.  Here the specific time “10 a.m.”  is introduced; this potentially unappealing detail is withheld until late in the conversation.]

Request 3: Would you be available then?  [Phrased as a question; “would” is a useful conditional; “available” is a relatively objective term focusing on the person’s schedule instead of any desire to get up early on Saturday!] 

* * *

Here are some more examples involving marketing or promotion of the speaker’s services:

Less effective — single question: 
Can you give me your email address?
More effective — COMMENT + REQUEST:
C:
I’d like to send you some information I think you’ll find interesting. 
R: If you give me your email address, I’ll send it to you tomorrow.

Less effective — single question: 
Can I send you some useful information about that?
More effective — COMMENT + REQUEST:
C:
I have a short description of some ways you can avoid that problem.
R: I’d be happy to email it to you.*

*Sometimes a request is implied rather than stated.  With an inquiring tone of voice, an implied request can elicit a positive response, but if necessary, the speaker can add “if you’ll give me your address” (or even more directly: “Could I email it to you?”)

Less effective — single question: 
Would you like to schedule a free initial consultation?
More effective — COMMENT + REQUEST:
C:
What we normally do at this point is arrange a meeting to learn more about a client’s needs and determine whether our services are appropriate.  This initial consultation usually takes about 30-40 minutes; it’s free and there’s no obligation to begin a project.
R: Is there a day this week that might work for you?

Less effective — single question: 
Could you refer me to other potential clients?
More effective — COMMENT + REQUEST:
C:
We’re always looking for others who could benefit from our help.
R: Can you think of anyone you know who might be interested in our services?

Packaging your points as brief comments + requests can help you get more positive responses from people whose help you need or patronage you want.

* * * * *

Learn with Lloyd! Most people you meet are patient enough to listen for a minute as you describe yourself and your current activities.  However, some people don’t want to listen for more than a minute to such a monologue, and in some situations, you have only a moment to explain yourself … before your conversation is interrupted or your listener has to leave, for example. 

So introducing yourself concisely — in a minute or less — is a valuable skill, and it’s easy to develop!  Such a self-introduction is useful for answering general questions like “What do you do?” or “What kind of work are you looking for?”  Below is a sample speech answering the question “What do you do?”  In this case, the speaker is in a relaxed social setting, so she feels free to add details to enliven the conversation.  Keep in mind that these sentences do not have to be delivered in an unbroken monologue; for example, there could be interrupting questions from the conversation partner that elicit the details that appear in the second half of the speech.

SAMPLE 1 (relaxed social setting): “I work for a non-profit cultural exchange organization called the Slavic Art Center.  We arrange tours of Russia for American artists, designers, architects, and other arts professionals who want to see the cultural treasures of Russia firsthand.  We also bring Russian arts professionals to the United States to meet with their American counterparts.  I’m responsible for travel arrangements, so I spend a lot of time booking flights, hotels, and ground transportation for our groups.  I also write some of our promotional materials.  One benefit I particularly enjoy is the chance to travel with some of our groups in Russia; in fact, I’m going there next month for ten days.  So if you know any American or Russian arts professionals, please let me know!”

Brief self-introductions are sometimes called “elevator speeches”: if you find yourself in an elevator with a potential customer, employer, or other person of interest, you might have 20 seconds, 40 seconds, maybe even 60 seconds to present yourself in a positive way, or promote your products/services or skills/background in a persuasive way.  If the person quoted above found herself in an elevator with a well-known artist or other person who could be interested in her services, she might introduce herself with a shorter, more promotional version of the speech:

SAMPLE 2 (shorter, promotional context):  “Hi, my name’s Jane Smith.  I enjoyed seeing your exhibition tonight; I especially liked the perfumed wood sculptures!  By the way, I work for a non-profit cultural exchange organization called the Slavic Art Center.  We arrange tours of Russia for American artists who want to see Russian culture firsthand.  We also bring Russian artists to the United States to meet their American counterparts.  If you think you might be interested in touring Russia with other artists, or meeting Russian artists when they visit here, I’d be happy to send you more information.”

If you’re not working, talk about your studies or other activities you’re involved in, as well as your future plans.  Here’s a sample from a relaxed social setting, answering the question “What do you do?”:

SAMPLE 3 (relaxed social setting): “I’m studying finance at NYU and planning to apply to MBA programs next year.  I’m currently researching the process of preparing IPOs — that’s initial public offerings: the first time companies offer shares of their stock on a stock market.*  I’m also doing an internship at Nanoventure, a firm that helps arrange IPOs for nanotechnology companies.  I plan to apply to NYU’s Stern Business School, and if I’m accepted, I hope to focus on corporate finance.  Eventually, I’d like to work for a venture capital firm.  I want to help identify small start-ups that could make big breakthroughs and develop innovative products.  So that’s enough about me.  What do you do?”

*Add such a brief explanation or clarification if you think your listener might appreciate it

If you’re looking for a job, market your skills/interests proactively … but concisely.  For example, you might mention a key aspect of your background, or one of your own professional interests or target areas/specialties, or a direct inquiry or question to the listener.  Here’s a sample adapted from the previous speech:

SAMPLE 4 (shorter, self-promotional context):  “Hi, my name is Sam Jones.  Congratulations on your acquisition of XYZ Corp.!  By the way, I’m doing an internship at Nanoventure, a firm that helps arrange IPOs for nanotechnology companies.  My ultimate goal is to work for a venture capital firm.  I’m just curious if there might be any opportunities for someone like me* at your firm in the near future.”

*You might substitute a descriptive phrase like “new account managers” or “business development specialists

* * *

 To develop your own elevator speech, click here for my “Brief Self-Introductions Worksheet,” which outlines the structure of the four sample speeches presented in today’s post, with blanks for you to fill in your own information.

* * * * *

Avoiding Writer’s Block

February 22, 2010

Learn with Lloyd!

The Writing Process

Do you suffer from writer’s block — the inability to write when you desperately want or need to write?  If so, you may be mixing your two distinct roles as creator and critic.

Writing requires creative efforts (planning and drafting) and critical efforts (reviewing, refining, checking, and changing).  These two efforts complement each other when applied at different times, but compete with each other when applied at the same time.  Writer’s block often results from trying to create and criticize simultaneously.  It’s as if two parts of our brain were at war with each other!

Creativity is about “What if…” “How about…” “Let’s try…” “Maybe…” “Yes!”  

Criticism is about “That’s awkward.” “Too simple.” “Doesn’t work.” “Not right.” “No!”

For a smoother, more enjoyable writing experience, and to help yourself produce your best writing, separate your creative efforts from your critical efforts.  The next time you’re facing a professional, academic, official, or creative writing task, try this approach:

CREATE
-1- Plan
-2- Draft

Take a break!

CRITIQUE
-3- Refine
-4- Check

Here are some thoughts on each step in the process:

A. CREATE

1. Plan: Think, make notes, sketch, outline, or roughly map out your basic ideas.  Focus on your purpose — why are you writing this particular document?  What do you want the reader to understand?  What is your main message?  What are other key points you want your reader to know?  If you’re stuck, try five minutes of freewriting.*

*Freewriting means writing whatever words and thoughts come into your mind — without editing at all.  Such freestyle writing can be completely off the topic: irrelevant personal thoughts, disorganized sentences, even silly ideas.  Sentences like “Well, I’m supposed to write but I have no idea how to start” are welcome.  This technique helps some writers establish a connection between their natural thoughts and the artificial act of writing.  After a few minutes, more relevant ideas will flow and the paralysis of writer’s block will be broken!

2. Draft.  Focus on your goal and purpose.  Don’t think too much about writing well — it’s too early in the process to worry about being clear, concise, courteous, complete, or correct.  Let your ideas flow into your fingers spontaneously, roughly, awkwardly, messily, and quickly.

* * * STOP.  Take a break.  You need to relax your creative engine and let a calmer, more critical perspective return.  Even a 3-minute break will help you see your rough draft with a fresh eye.  Don’t mix the creative and critical processes. * * *

 

B. CRITIQUE

3. Refine: Review and revise.  Move sentences, paragraphs, and entire sections.  Take another break and do it again.  Put yourself in your reader’s place and slowly read from the beginning: are the order and flow of your ideas logical and clear?  Are your paragraphs easy to read?  Are your sentences easy to understand? 

If not, rewrite, rewrite, rewrite — several times, if necessary.  Professional writers rewrite extensively, so how can you expect not to rewrite?  Ask another person to review and comment on your revised draft. 

4. Check: Only when you’re sure your latest revision is the best possible one, make final adjustments and edits.  Finally, check for spelling, grammar, and punctuation errors.  Discipline yourself to postpone this final check until the last possible moment.  If you do it too early, you may be wasting your time, as your refining efforts (Step 3) may not be complete, and you may end up rewriting entire sections of your draft. 

*  *  *  *  *

Try to apply this process to your next writing task.  The most profitable part is the first one: planning.  Most people want to get writing tasks done as quickly as possible, so they begin writing what they think will be their final version.  If they’re wise, they begin to realize that what they’re writing is just a first draft, which will need refining and checking.  

Planning allows you to discover, organize, and structure your ideas in advance to save time in drafting, not spend extra time!  Give yourself the gift of planning, and know that your initial “writing” is really drafting — and you’ll immediately become a better writer.